Abstract: Total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) is a technique of anaesthesia which involves use ofintravenous drugs to anaesthetize the patient without the use of inhalational agents. TIVAis getting popular mode of anaesthesia in otolaryngological surgeries. This article reviewsthe entire procedure of TIVA from otolaryngologist’s perspective. TIVA is really useful toanaesthetize patients during functional endoscopic sinus surgeries […]
Introduction: Trephination of frontal sinus is a surgical procedure where in a small opening is made in the floor of frontal sinus facilitating drainage of its contents. Trephination of frontal sinus is nothing new. It dates back to prehistoric times. Two Peruvian skulls at the Museum of Man in San Diego show evidence of frontal […]
This article attempts to analyze all cases of odontogenic cysts involving upper jaw who presented at
Stanley Medical college during 2007 – 2012. This article analyzes the incidence of these cysts
during the above said period, age of occurence, sex prediliction if any, clinical presentations and
optimal treatment modality. Common complaints with which patients presented to our Institution
was swelling over jaw, next was loosening of dentition, paresthesia. 30 patients had presented with
cysts involving upper jaw out of which 29 were females and one was male. All these patients
underwent surgical removal of the cystic lesion.
Pleomorphic adenoma is the common salivary gland tumour encountered. Most of these tumours occur in major salivary glands; Parotid gland happens to be the commonly involved one. This case report discusses a case of intraoral salivary gland tumour (in the hard palate). This case report discusses a case of pleomorphic adenoma of hard palate with a review of corresponding world literature. Even though these tumours are painless and slow growing ones, it is important to identify these cases rather early and extirpate them totally.
A careful study of anatomy of orbit is very important to an ENT surgeon because of its proximity to the para nasal sinuses. A comprehensive knowlege of orbital and peri orbital anatomy is necessary to understand the various disorders of this region and in its surgical mangement. Current day otolaryngologists venture into other unchartered territories like orbit, lacrimal sac etc. Anatomical knowledge of this area will help otolaryngologists to avoid complications during surgical procedures involving this area. This article attempts to explore this topic from otolaryngologist’s perspective.
Anatomically paranasal sinuses are in close proximity to vital structures like brain and orbit. Lesions affecting nasal sinuses can affect these areas as well. Infections involving mucosal lining of paranasal sinuses can also spread to these adjacent vital areas. This article attempts to study the orbital and intra cranial complications of sinusitis.
Intrinsic rhinitis is defined as a non infective and non allergic condition characterised by nasal block, rhinorrhoea and hyposmia. This is purely a medical condition. Awareness of this condition will help us to avoid unnecessary surgical procedures on patients suffering from this disorder. Surgery should be reserved only for cases that are intractable to medical management. This article discusses the complete gamut of this disorder.
Paranasal sinuses are air filled hollow sacs seen around the skull bone. These sacs precisely surround the nasal cavity. There are four paired sinuses surrounding the nasal cavity. This article attempts to trace the history of anatomy of paranasal sinuses from early 16th century till date. The advent of nasal endoscopes have added another dimension to the anatomical study of paranasal sinuses. The entire subject of anatomy of paranasal sinuses has been rewritten after endoscopes were started to be used commonly.
Introduction: Epistaxis is defined as bleeding from the nasal cavity. It is actually a Greek word for nose bleed. It is actually a very common problem and hence its incidence is rather difficult to access. Crude estimates or its incidence ranges from 5 – 14%1. The incidence of epistaxis also shows significant increase during winter […]
Dentigerous cysts are the most common developmental odontogenic cysts. They are usually derived from the epithelial remnants of tooth forming organs. These cysts increase in size gradually. There may also be associated bone resorption. Managing these lesions creates problems in
children. It is always better to be conservative in managing this problem in children because dentition is yet to complete in them.
Introduction: Anaesthesia of nose and nasal cavity are indicated for various diagnostic and surgical procedures involving the nose. Some of these indications include: 1. Insertion of Ryles tube 2. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy 3. Repair of fracture nasal bone1 4. Nasal packing for epistaxis 5. Foreign body removal 6. Abscess drainage / Septal hematoma drainage 7. […]
Anatomy of lateral nasal wall Introduction: Anatomy of the lateral nasal wall is highly complex and variable. With the popularity of endoscopic sinus surgery a through knowledge of this complex anatomy is very vital. Highly variable anatomy and paucity of standard landmark makes this region vulnerable for complications during endoscopic sinus surgery. The learning curve […]
Currently otolaryngologists have started doing dacryocystorhinostomy using nasal endoscopes. This procedure done by an otolaryngologist has its own obvious advantages. The first and foremost being the need for external incision has been dispensed with. On the flip side otolaryngologist is not conversant with the examination techniques involving this area. Even the standard text books of otolaryngology are woefully inadequate in details regarding this subject. This e book discusses the examination techniques and investigations pertaining to rhinolacrimal system
This article discusses the importance of anesthesia in endoscopic sinus surgery. Major aim of anesthetist in FESS should be to reduce blood pressure to such a level that bleeding is minimized. It also discusses the various steps that should be followed by surgeons to reduced intra operative bleeding during the procedure.
Abstract: Rhinitis is classically defined as inflammation of nasal mucosa characterised by a symptom complex which includes sneezing, nasal congestion, itching and rhinorrhoea. Allergy happens to be the most common cause for rhinitis affecting approximately 20% of the population. Eventhough allergic rhinitis is not a life threatening disorder it causes a fair degree of morbidity […]
Abstract: According to European rhinological society guidelines chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polypi and chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polypi are two different entities. This article attempts to review published literature which attempts to study link between nasal polyposis and lower airway disorders. The concept of unified airway attempts precisely to explain this linkage. Developmentally and functionally […]
Abstract: Choana is also known as posterior nasal aperture. Nasal airway continues with that of posterior nares. Air from nasal cavity finds its way into the lungs via the choanal apertures. In some children the choana may be congenitally closed. This causes either total (bilateral choanal atresia) or partial (unilateral choanal atreisa) nasal obstruction. Child […]
Nasal resistance is the resistance offered by the nasal cavity to inspired air. This resistance plays a vital role in preventing collapse of lung. It goes without saying a collapsed lung will hamper normal respiration. In adults nasal resistance constitutes about 2/3 of total airway resistance. Current respiratory physiologists consider this to be one of the functions of nose inaddition to olfaction and airconditioning. This article attempts to discuss the current trends and scenario of nasal resistance.
This is a disfigurement of the skin lining the nose. This condition is commonly seen in elderly males. This condition is characterised by slow and progressive hypertrophy of sebaceous glands and connective tissue over the lower portion of dorsum of the nose. The term rhinophyma originates from the Greek word “Rhis” which means nose and “phyma” which means growth. This
article attempts to review the hitherto published literature on this subject.
This article discusses Nasal myasis, its common causes and treatment modalities followed to remove the same. Myasis Narium is also commonly known as Peenash in India. Maggots are larvae hatched from eggs laid inside the nasal cavity by certain flies. The commonest fly implicated being Sarcophagia Georginia. These flies gets attracted by stench emenating from the nasal cavity of patients. They manage to lay eggs inside the nasal cavity. These flies are capable of laying more than 200 eggs at a time. These eggs take just a day to hatch.
This article discusses etiopathogenesis, clinical features and management of cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea.
Cerebrospinal fluid rhinorrhoea is the leakage of cerebrospinal fluid from the subarachnoid space into the nasal cavity due to defect in both dura and bone.
Various causes of CSF rhinorrhoea include:
Mucoceles are gradually expanding lesion involving paranasal sinuses 1. This is usually caused due to obstruction to the normal drainage channels of paranasal sinuses leading on to pent up secretions within it. These patients classically don’t present with symptoms pertaining to nose and sinuses but with ophthalmological signs and symptoms. They invariably present to the opthalmologist before finding their way to an otolaryngologist. This interesting case report describes a patient with a large frontoethmoidal mucocele who presented with extensive proptosis and intracranial extension of the lesion. This case is reported to stress the importance of endoscopic approach in managing these lesions.
Rhinoliths are calcareous deposits (stone like) inside the nasal cavity. These stone like structures are highly friable and may crumble when crushed. This interesting case report discusses a patient with a huge rhinolith inside the nasal cavity. Rhinoliths since they crumble easily can be removed after crushing with a luc’s forceps via the nasal cavity. Since the rhinolith in this patient was very large extending up to the choana it was removed via lateral rhinotomy approach in order to avoid excessive injury to nasal mucosa during the process of removal.
Blow out fracture of orbit involves fracture of orbital floor without fracture of infraorbital rim. This injury is common from frontal blow to orbit. Frontal blow to orbit causes increased intraorbital tension causing fracture of floor of the orbit (weak point) with prolapse of orbital content into the maxillary sinus cavity. This causes enophthalmos and diplopia. Infraorbital rim is not involved in pure blow out fracture, it is also involved then it should be considered as an impure blow out fracture 3. Entrapment of inferior rectus muscle between the fracture fragments will cause diplopia in these patients. This article discusses a novel endoscopic internal reduction of fractured fragments. Main advantage of endoscopic approach is the lack of facial skin incision. It is cosmetically acceptable.
Abstract: Concha involving middle turbinate is a common occurence1. Review of literature puts the incidence anywhere between 14 – 40%. This is an interesting case report of mucocele involving middle turbinate concha. Pneumatization of middle turbinate is known as concha bullosa4. Concha bullosa actually is a radiological diagnosis2 . Mucoceles can technically arise from a […]